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In order to combat this phenomenon, probiotics are increasingly administered to introduce alternative nonpathogenic species to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and occupy niches potentially open to pathogens. longum group isolates) from each of the probiotic products. lactis was the most commonly-isolated organism, and was frequently the only species isolated from the products. In three out of four cases where Bif-TRFLP found B. lactis where it was not listed on the label, the species was also successfully isolated (Probiotics 4, 6, and 11, but not 13). In order for clinical trials to provide meaningful data about the benefits of specific probiotic strains and enable clinicians to make informed decisions about prescribing or recommending probiotics, increased standards of strain identification are needed, particularly given the lack of regulatory oversight for certification of probiotics in the United States. infantis is commonly misidentified in commercial probiotics, some of which are marketed towards infants. While the clear congruence between the known mock community input and resultant Bif-TRFLP/BLIR data was encouraging from a methodological standpoint, the results from the products tested was concerning. Capillary electrophoresis and analysis of the amplicon sizes proceeded as with the Bif-TRFLP procedure above. Negative controls containing DNA-free water instead of sample DNA were included with each run.Rare cases of infection from probiotic organisms or contaminants in premature infants underscore the importance of providing probiotic products with established composition and purity (15,16). Not all listed species were isolated from the probiotics (Supplementary Table S1 online) likely a consequence of differing viability after storage, as well as differences in culturability. The BLIR method is based on unique genetic loci found in the genomes of multiple strains of each B. Several potentially mislabeled products containing B. Debate continues regarding probiotic administration to premature infants, with several authors arguing for the routine prophylactic use of probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (38,39). infantis as a potential candidate species for infants, especially when provided in combination with breast milk (26,40). To this end, we present and validate potentially useful tools for evaluating probiotic contents, including a method to distinguish B. There were numerous mismatches between label claims and our results. infantis, but Bif-TRFLP/BLIR indicated its contents were B. A positive control of known genomic DNA was included with each PCR run to ensure potential amplification of both B. To isolate bifidobacteria, 100 mg or one pill of each product was aseptically transferred to a sterile tube, diluted tenfold with sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and homogenized by vortex.The ingestion of probiotics to attempt to improve health is increasingly common; however, quality control of some commercial products can be limited. While our use of the Bif-TRFLP and BLIR techniques has revealed numerous inconsistencies of product labeling with product contents, there are limitations to the methods used in this study.Clinical practice is shifting toward the routine use of probiotics to aid in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and probiotic administration to term infants is increasingly common to treat colic and/or prevent atopic disease. It is possible for a mutation causing an r RNA gene restriction site to change a cognate Bif-TRFLP fragment length and cause an incorrect (or unknown) species identification.Subsequently, 25 μl formic acid was then added to each tube and homogenized by vortex, followed by the addition of 25 µl acetonitrile. Samples were then centrifuged for 2 min and 1 μl of extract was placed on a MALDI target plate, left to dry at room temperature, covered with a α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA) matrix and air dried.

The hospital environment has been shown to be a likely source of inoculum for premature infants (13,14), and the gut microbiota of premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit was shown resemble that of neonatal intensive care unit fomites (14). However, when multiple strains were present each in levels under 5% of total DNA, some minority strains were not observed in the output data, a known limitation of the TRFLP-based technique (33). breve despite all five species being added, mixture P was missing B. For purposes of content comparison, bifidobacterial isolates were obtained and identified (by MALDI Biotyper and BLIR for B. lactis was the only species not listed on the product labels that was found by isolation. These results suggest that quality control of probiotics is lacking. longum, a subspecies differentiation not possible on the basis of traditional 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing alone. PCR products were purified from the mixture using the QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and diluted to avoid off-scale peak sizes. longum species peak area from the Bif-TRFLP data to arrive at final abundances of each subspecies.One area in which probiotics may have a strong benefit is in guiding the development of the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tract of the neonate. While closely related, the two subspecies are not distinguishable using common 16S r RNA gene sequencing methods (27,29,32,33). The Bif-TRFLP/BLIR results generally reflected the known mock communities of input DNA from common bifidobacteria probiotic species (Figure 1). Bifidobacterial composition of probiotic products by polymerase chain reaction–based methods. Indeed, only 1 of the 16 products tested exactly matched the bifidobacterial species claims on the label in every sample tested. The second lot of Probiotic 11 had the same stock keeping unit number as the first lot, was produced by the same manufacturer, and was even purchased from the same store. lactis strain (with the same trade name as the previous B. The samples were analyzed with Peak Scanner 2.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA). In brief, three primers (FWD_BL_BI (5-(HEX)-AAAACGTCCATCCATCACA), REV_BL (5-ACGACCAGGTTCCACTTGAT), and REV_BI (5-CGCCTCAGTTCTTTAATGT)) targeting a conserved portion of the genome (between Blon_0424 and Blon_0425) shared by both subspecies were designed using multiple genome sequences of each subspecies. infantis genome 114 bp in length, allowing differentiation of the amplicons.The development of the microbiota early in life has been shown to influence risk for susceptibility to infection and development of allergies and atopic disease (9,10). One commonly used probiotic product whose label lists two subspecies, B. All five tested species were observable and distinguishable from each other, and there was no specific bias against any species or subspecies. Each product was assayed four times, shown here in order grouped by product, lot 1 pill 1, lot 1 pill 2, lot 2 pill 1, lot 2 pill 2. To further confirm the results of the BLIR method, the genomes of two isolates from Product 15, where the label claimed B. Some products were not internally consistent as both pill-to-pill and lot-to-lot variation were observed. However, the product label from the second lot differed from the first lot. Negative controls containing DNA-free water instead of sample DNA were included with each run. FWD_BL_BI is complementary to a sequence in both subspecies while REV_BL and REV_BI are complementary to nearby sequences in only B. Genomic DNA from each probiotic was amplified by PCR using 0.5 μl of 10 μmol/l stock of each of the above primers, 12.5 μl Go Taq Green Master Mix (Promega, Madison, WI) , 1 μl of 25 mmol/l Mg Cl, 1 μl of template DNA, and 9 μl of nuclease-free water.lactis, especially in the presence of human milk (26). The resulting pure strains were grown in MRS broth supplemented with 0.05% L-cysteine and stored at −80 °C in 50% glycerol. However it is unclear if such subtle footnoted-label changes, in lieu of actual relabeling, will be fully understood and recognized by clinicians and consumers.

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